Domain Name Handbook
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Used in an e-mail address, the @ sign joins a user name on the left with the server that hosts the electronic mailbox. The @ sign is now the standard protocol worldwide for email addresses.


Acknowledgment. A message returned to indicate that changes requested to a domain name record are acceptable. Also used in programming code to indicate that a block of data arrived without error.


Alternative Network Information Center. An alternative root server system and registry system outside Internet governance that administers top level domains not already in use. See


Asia Pacific Network Information Center. See


American Registry for Internet Numbers. A non-profit registry responsible for the administration and registration of Internet Protocol (IP) numbers in North and South America, South Africa, the Caribbean and all other regions administered currently managed by Network Solutions, Inc. ee

arbitrary name

Names which bear no relationship to the products, services, or companies they identify. Arbitrary names are protectable under trademark law.


A legal remedy for dispute resolution outside a court in which the parties submit their grievance to an impartial arbitrator or tribunal. The decision (award) on the dispute is binding on the parties.


The boundary or interface between two successive sets of subsystems.


Advanced Research Projects Agency, the central research and development organization for the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD). By 1972, a "D" was added to indicate the connection to the DOD. See also DARPA.


A pioneering network of Advanced Research Projects Agency computers under the authority of the U.S. Department of Defense. Predecessor to the Internet, ARPANET was an experimental network developed in the late 1960s by the U.S. Department of Defense to create a communications link which would enable ARPA scientists and research contractors to share their resources and ideas. The network was designed to survive breakdowns along any of its connections, in case of a nuclear attack, through use of individual packet switching computers interconnected by leased lines. If a connection broke down, the packets could be automatically re-routed.


Address Supporting Organization. One of three supporting organizations that submits policy recommendations to the ICANN board.


The verification of the identity of a person or process.



In a hierarchical network, a backbone is the top level transmission path into which other transit networks feed.

Bigfoot Letter

A cease and desist letter or warning notice sent to a domain owner threatening legal action if domain name rights are not terminated within a specified period, usually 30 days. This was named after a humongous, hairy humanoid of Western lore, said to live in the mountains of the Pacific Northwest.


Berkeley Internet Name Domain. BIND software, developed by the University of California at Berkeley, implements a DNS server and a resolver library that enables clients to store and retrieve resources or objects and share this information with other resources on the network. The BIND server runs in the background, servicing queries on a well known network port. Most Internet hosts run BIND. See

boot file

The file containing contains names, authorizations, and pointers to zone database files.


Abbreviation for robot, the word is used to describe programs, usually run on a server, that automate tasks such as forwarding or sorting e-mail.


A name or symbol used to identify the source of goods or services, and to differentiate them from those of others. Branding protects a seller's products against those marketed by competitors and imitators and helps consumers identify the quality, consistency, and imagery of a preferred source.


Software that lets users look at various types of Internet resources. Browsers can search for documents and obtain them from other computers on the network. The most common browsers are Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Explorer.


Abbreviation for "by the way," an acronym frequently used in e-mail messages.



Conseil Europeen pour la Recherche Nucleaire (European Center for Particle Physics) located in Geneva, Switzerland. See


Committee on Information and Communications, one of eight committees within a U.S. cabinet-level council which facilitates coordination of science, space, and technology policies across the Federal government.


Computer and Information Science and Engineering. A group within the National Science Foundation. See


Commercial Internet Exchange. CIX was originally the agreement between PSI, Uunet, CERFnet, and US Sprint (Sprintlink), to let the traffic of any member of one network flow without restriction over the networks of the other members. CIX represented the vast majority of the commercial Internet until late in 1994. See

Class A Network

Part of the Internet Protocol addressing scheme; a network that can accommodate 16 million hosts.

Class B Network

Part of the Internet Protocol addressing scheme; a network that can accommodate 65,000 hosts.

Class C Network

Part of the Internet Protocol addressing scheme,; a network that can accommodate 256 hosts; Class C addresses were too small for many organizations, which opted for Class B instead. When available Class B address began to be seriously depleted in the early 90s, CIDR (Classless Inter Domain Routing) was created to enable groups of Class C address to be used together.


A computer system employed in networking; also called a host or a server. A workstation requesting the contents of a file from a file server is a client of the file server.


Corporation for National Research Initiatives. A non-profit organization dedicated to formulating, planning and carrying out natonal-level research initiatives on the use of network-based information technology. CNRI was founded in the 1980s by Robert Kahn (co-author with Vint Cerf of the TCP/IP protocol) as a civilian Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). CNRI currently houses the secretariat of the Internet Engineering Task Force. See

coined name

Unique, made up names. These are afforded the strongest possible protection as trademarks.

configuration file

Holds the complete database of second level domain names registered under a particular top level domain. Eachroot server has a configuration file used to resolve names under given TLDs.


when offered load exceeds the capacity of a data communication path. Congestion occurs when there is too much traffic on the Internet and all the server requests cannot be processed quickly.


A top level domain name denoting commercial entities such as corporations. .In Internet addressing protocol, .COM indicates a site used by individual proprietors and businesses, large and small. COM is the largest category of top level domains in the world.


An informal method for identifying approval of a proposal placed before a group. Consensus is not the same as unanimity. It is sometimes used as a political tool and may be proclaimed without individual voting but may not necessarily be an accurate assement of the group's general desires.


Protection from misuse or appropriation afforded to literary, musical, artistic, photographic and audiovisual works through numerous international treates and federal statutes.


Internet Council of Registrars established by the Generic Top Level Domains Memorandum of Understanding. The operational organization composed of authorized registrars for managing allocations under gTLDs. See

country code

A two-character abbreviation for a country according to the standards promulgated by ISO 3166. This alpha code is used as a top level domain identifier to assist root servers in finding a specific computer address.


Corporation for Research and Educational Networking, an organization formed in October 1989, when Bitnet and CSNET (Computer + Science NETwork) were combined under one administrative authority. CSNET is no longer operational, but CREN still runs Bitnet.


Computer Science Research Network, an initiative to link most of the computer science departments in the United States by 1986. CSNET is no longer operational,


Community Trademark. The Maastricht Treaty of 1993 established uniform and expanded protection in all European Union nations through the filing of a single trademark application.


Authors' term for an individual or organizaition who registers many domains in order to retain control over a market area.


An individual who uses the resources available on the World Wide Web for research. Generally applied to someone who ferrets out information about organizations, policies and procedures from the abundance of material available on-line.


The universe of information that is available from computer networks and the society connected with them. William Gibson coined the term in his landmark novel, Neuromancer, published in 1984.

cybersquatter, cybersquatting

A name given to individuals who attempt to profit from the Internet by reserving and later reselling or licensing domain names back to the companies that invested time and money in developing the goodwill of the trademark. (From Intermatic v. Toeppen No. 96 C 1982, 1996 WL 716892 at *6 (N.D.Ill. Nov. 26, 1996). "Cybersquatting" is the deliberate, bad-faith and abusive registration of Internet domain names in violation of the rights of trademark owners.' S. Rep. 106-140, 106th Cong., 1st Sess. 1999, 1999 WL594571 Abusive registration of a domain names is defined by WIPO as: 1) registration of a domain name which is identical or misleadingly similar to a trade or service mark in which the complainant has rights; and 2) in which the registrant has no rights or legitimate interests with respect to the domain name; and 3) the domain name has been registered and is used in bad faith.


A noun coined by the authors and applied to very long second level domain names.



The "dot" is a standard Internet protocol used worldwide to indicate the top domain file in the DNS. It is a deliminiter which identifies an address path to a particular file on a specific computer.


Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the central research and development organization for the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD). DARPA develops innovative and often high risk technological research ideas and protytpe systems for use by the military. Formerly known as ARPA, it was funded much of the development which led to the Internet we use today. See


U.S. Defense Data Network

descriptive name

A name which describes a product, service, or company. Descriptive names often are generally not protectable under trademark law unless they develop a secondary meaning through widespread use. (S ee secondary meaning.)


Domain Internet Groper. DIG is a Unix-based program that allows users to learn information from a DNS site.


The "whittling away" of a mark's distinctiveness or capacity to identify and distinguish goods or services, due primarily to another's use of a similar or identical mark, even when the goods or services are not related and there is no likelihood of confusion.. The legal doctrine of dilution is recognized in the statutes or case law of 31 states.

distributed database

Several different data repositories linked together seamlessly so that it works for the user as if it were one single database. A prime example in the Internet is the Domain Name System.


Division of Networking and Communications Research and Infrastructure of the National Science Foundation.


Domain Name Rights Coalition, a public policy advocacy group. See


Domain Naming System. The DNS is a general purpose distributed, replicated, data query service. The principal use is the lookup of host IP addresses based on host names. The style of host names now used in the Internet is called "domain name". which offers a means of mapping an easy to remember name to an Internet Protocol number. The DNS is administered by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority.


Domain Name Supporting Organization. One of three supporting organizations that submit policy recommendations to the ICANN board. See


U.S. Department of Commerce. In the summer of 1997, the DOC conducted a public inquiry into the Registration and Administration of Internet Domain Names. See also NOI. See


U.S. Department of Defense. See

doctrine of laches

A legal assertion that one party's failure to take action in a timely manner causes harm to the opposing party.

doctrine of unclean hands

A legal assertion that one party's actions were egregious and the matter therefore should not be heard.


A region of jurisdiction for name assignment and content on the World Wide Web; an Internet location that has name server (NS) records associated with it.

domain name

A unique alpha-numeric designation to facilitate reference to the sets of numbers that actually locate a particular computer connected to the global information network; any name representing any record that exists within the Domain Name System (DNS).

domain name space

All DNS host names fit into a name hierarchy, or tree, known as the domain name space.

domain server

A computer system that hold all the records associated with a particular domain and answers queries about those names.

domain trafficking

The aftermarket in domain name registrations where people offer to sell and buy rights to the registered names.

dot address

A dotted decimal notation, the common notation for Internet Protocol addresses of the form A.B.C.D; where each letter represents, in decimal, one byte of a four byte IP address. See also dotted octet.

dotted octet

The Internet Protocol addressing approach for Internet computers.



Enhanced Domain Naming System. An alternative root server system outside Internet governance that administers top level domain names not already in use.


A top level domain name abbreviation denoting education in Internet addressing protocol. It is used exclusively for four-year degree-granting universities, colleges and other institutions of higher learning.


Electronic Frontier Foundation, an advocacy organization established to address social and legal issues arising from the impact on society of the increasingly pervasive use of computers as a means of communication and distribution of information.


A legal action to restrain an opposing party's contradictions


European Telecommunications Standards Institute. See or


European Union. In 1993 by the Maastricht Treaty established a continental union with economic, monetary and political ties and intergovernmental coordination of foreign and security policies among 15 European countries.


European UNIX Network, Europe's largest Internet Service Provider.


European Internet Services Provider Association. See

expedited arbitration

A form of arbitration in which the process is conducted and the decision (award) is rendered in a particularly short time and at reduced cost. The World Intellectual Property Organization uses expedited arbitration as one of its methods of dispute resolution.



Acronym for Frequently Asked Questions.


A software tool used for finding the e-mail address of people on the Internet.


An online insult usually delivered by way of e-mail or a newsgroup posting. Flaming is considered poor "netiquette". (See also "netiquette").


Federal Networking Council. A coordinating body serving as a forum for networking collaboration of the federal mission agencies. FNC membership consists of one representative from each of 17 U.S. federal agencies, including the Department of Energy, Department of Education, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Department of Commerce, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation and other federal agencies whose programs require interconnected networks. See


A court of justice or judicial tribunal; a place of jurisdiction or place where legal remedy is pursued.


File Transfer Protocol. The standard rules that govern the transfer of files and programs over the Internet. FTP allows files to be moved from one computer to another over a network, regardless of the types of computers or operating systems involved in the exchange. FTP is also the name of the program a user invokes to execute the protocol.



A top level domain name in Internet addressing protocol inidcating a site used by governmental institutions, specifically non-military government sites.


A menu-based system used fororganizing and retrieving files and programs on the Internet. Gopher allows access to files found on FTP servers, as well as to files normally accessed through Telnet, Archie or WAIS programs


generic top level domain. An internationally allocated portion of namespace. The IAHC proposed the creation of seven new gTLDs: .FIRM, .STORE, .WEB, .ARTS, .REC, .INFO and .NOM. See


The security authorization and authentication mechanism developed by Network solutions to protect domain name, contact and host records from uauthorized modification. Guardian is available free to all NSI registrants.



A person who delights in having an intimate understanding of the internal workings of a computers and computer networks in particular. It is also used in the pejorative context to describe a person who breaks into a computer network without authorization and tampers with the system or its contents.


A unique database identifier used by the InterNIC for database functions. Every domain registrant has a NIC handle that is created the first time the full organization information is submitted to InterNIC and subsequently incorporated into all associated records. The InterNIC handle (or NIC handle) is computer-generated by the registry and typically uses the domain holder's initials followed by a number.


A body of persons or things ranked in grades, orders, or classes, one above the other; in natural sciences and logic, a system or series of terms of successive rank (as classes, orders, genera, species, etc.), used in classification.

hierarchical routing

The method used to reduce the size of the networks and simplify the routing process. Each network is subdivided into a hierarchy of networks, where each level is responsible for its own routing. The Internet has, basically, three levels: the backbone, the mid-level, and the transit or stub networks. The backbones route between the mid-levels, the mid-levels route between the sites, and each site routes internally.


The act of acquiring a second-level Internet domain name identical to a famous name or trademark for the purpose of obtaining a financial settlement from the owner the name


The number of times a web page is accessed by any one connected to the World Wide Web.

hold status

Suspension or deactivation of rights to use a domain name that has been challenged by a trademark owner. A domain name placed by NSI on hold status is unavailable for use by any party.

home page

The front web page of an Internet site, which provides links to other pages within the site.


In early ARPANET terminology, a computer that allows users to communicate with other host computers in a network. Individual users communicate by using programs such as e-mail, Telnet and FTP. More recently, this machine is called either a server or a client.

host name

The name given to a machine which is the part of the Internet address located immediately left of the "dot."


One or more zone host files. Each file contains data about machines in its zone. The location and names of these files are specified in the boot file.


Hypertext Markup Language, the programming language used to create content for the World Wide Web.


Hypertext Transfer protocol. The set of rules that govern the transfer of most documents traveling over the Internet. It appears at the beginning of every Internet address.


Text that links one document directly to another at a different computer location.



Internet Architecture Board (formerly Internet Activities Board), a technical body that oversees the development of the Internet suite of protocols. IAB is the coordinating and oversight body for the actions of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and the Internet Research Task Force (IRTF). In June of 1992, the IAB, IETF, and IRTF were given a new legal home under the aegis of the Internet Society. The IAB's 13-member board manages hardware and infrastructure concerns and assures that computers through the Internet can continue to communicate with each other. See


International Ad Hoc Committee. IAHC was a non-governmental task force of eleven Internet experts drawn from Internet-related boards. The IAHC proposed the creation of seven new top level domains to relieve the pressure on the COM top level domain and end the monopoly control over its administration. It was dissolved on May 1, 1997 after the signing ceremony of the gTLD-MoU. See


Internet Assigned Numbers Authority. IANA is a government-funded authority that assigns and distributes international domain names and IP numbers or Internet addresses and oversees the Internet software protocols of the officially-sanctioned root servers. It is the central registry for various Internet protocol parameters, such as port, protocol and enterprise numbers, and options, codes and types. IANA is an Internet service of the High-Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) Division of the Information Sciences Institute (ISI), part of the University of Southern California's (USC) School of Engineering. See


Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. A non-profit, public benefit California corporation acknowledged by the Department of Commerce in October 1998 to assume the functions of IANA as part of the transfer of Internet administration to the private sector. See


Internet Engineering Planning Group. A group principally comprised of Internet Service Providers whose objective is to promote a technically coordinated operational environment on the Internet. See


Internet Engineering Steering Group, which is the governing body for the IETF. It provides the first technical review of Internet standards and is responsible for day-to-day administration of the IETF The IETF Secretariat is located at the Corporation for National Research Initiatives (CNRI) which is principally funded by the U.S. government. See


Internet Engineering Task Force. Based in Hearndon, Virginia, the IETF is the standards promulgating body of the Internet. It is a major source of proposals for protocol standards which are submitted to the IAB for final approval. The IETF is a large, open community of network designers, operators, vendors, and researchers whose purpose is to coordinate the operation, management and evolution of the Internet, and to resolve short-range and mid-range protocol and architectural issues. Its quarterly meetings are open to anyone who pays the registration fee to attend. See


Programming code for Internet class of data (Internet database)

industrial property

Inventions, trademarks, industrial designs, and appellations of origin. Industrial property is afforded protection according to numerous international treaties and federal statutes.


International Trademark Association, based in New York City. INTA was founded in 1878 as the U.S. Trademark Association. In 1993, it changed its name to reflect its worldwide membership. See

intellectual property

Comprised of industrial property and copyrights, chiefly in literary, musical, artistic, photographic and audiovisual works. Intellectual property is afforded protection from imitation, infringement and dilution according to numerous intenational treaties and federal statutes.


International network of networks, the world's largest network of interconnected computers used by individuals, organizations and business for the exchange of information, goods and services. The Internet came into being between the late 1970s and early 1980s with the development and adoption of TCP/IP, which allowed ARPAnet to join with other networks. Although often thought of as synonymous with the World Wide Web, the Internet encompasses much more than just web servers and hypertext documents. The major Internet services include electronic mail, Usenet public discusion groups, and all of the systems used to deliver software, text, music, images and other works information between those computers, including gopher, Telnet, FTP and WAIS."The Internet is not a physical or tangible entity, but rather a giant network which interconnects innumerable smaller groups of linked computer networks. It is thus a network of networks." ACLU v. Reno, 929 F. Supp. at 830

Internet address

A 32-bit quantity that uniquely identifies a node on the Internet, i.e., both the network and the specific host that a network application is running on.

Internet Draft

Draft documents of the IETF and its working groups. They are valid for a maximum of six months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any time. Very often, Internet Drafts are precursors to RFCs. See also RFC.

Internet Secretariat

Provides logistical and administrative assistance to the various Internet governing bodies (IAB, IETF, IRTF, IESG, etc). Agencies belonging to the FNC have given enough funding to the Corporation for National Research Initiatives (CNRI) to allow it to house and pay for the expenses of the Secretariat which includes staff positions for Executive Director of the IETF and a Secretary for the IESG.


A registry responsible for name assignment within the following top level domains: COM, EDU, NET, GOV and ORG. InterNIC is a collaborative DNS infrastructure project established in January 1993 as a result of a NSF Cooperative Agreement awarding Network Solutions, Inc., (NSI) the registration services administration, AT&T the database services management, and General Atomics, the information services portion. See


A seldom-used but long-established legal process that traditionally is initiated by a third party to resolve adverse claims between two other parties to avoid the risk of inconsistent verdicts.

interstate commerce

Commercial transactions that cross state lines.

intrastate commerce

Commercial transactions that remain within a state.


Internet Protocol. The Internet Protocol, defined in RFC 791, is the network layer for the TCP/IP Protocol Suite. It is a connectionless, best-effort packet switching protocol.

IP address

Internet Protocol address. Every machine on the Internet has a unique 32-bit numerical assignment which allows computers and hosts on the network to locate it. The IP address consists of a dotted octet, four sets of numbers separated by dots. (For example: If a machine does not have an IP address, it is not officially on the Internet.

IP number

Internet Protocol number (also referred to as Internet address number) . It identifies the address of a host or other intelligent device on the Internet.


interim Policy Oversight Committee established by the Generic Top Level Domains Memorandum of Understanding (gTLD-MoU). See


Internet Protocol, version 4, which is the current standard. Under IPv4 only 128 Class A addresses can exist - of which only 64 have been used.


Internet Research Task Force. The IRTF is chartered by the IAB to consider long-term Internet issues from a theoretical point of view and carry out internetworking research experiments. Multi-cast audio/video conferencing and privacy enhanced mail are samples of IRTF output.


Information Services, a portion of the NSF Cooperative Agreement awarded to General Atomics in 1993. IS is one of three services comprising the InterNIC.


Information Sciences Institute, located within the University of Southern California's (USC) School of Engineering. ISI administers the .US top level domain. See


International Organization for Standardization. ISO is a voluntary, notreaty, worldwide federation of national standards bodies founded in 1946. It promotes the development of standardization to facilitate the international exchange of goods and services and cooperation in the spheres of intellectual, scientific, technological and economic activity. ISO includes one representative from the national standards organizations of about 100 member countries. See

ISO 3166

An international standards agreement that establishes two-character abbreviation codes for all sovereign nations of the world using the Internet.


Internet Society, a non-profit scientific, educational membership organization incorporated in 1992 in the District of Columbia. ISOC facilitates and supports the technical evolution of the Internet, stimulates interest in and educates the scientific and academic communities, industry and the public about the technology, uses and applications of the Internet, and promotes the development of new applications for the system. ISOC provides a forum for discussion and collaboration in the operation and use of the global Internet infrastructure. The development of Internet technical standards takes place under the auspices of the ISOC with substantial support from the Corporation for National Research Initiatives under a cooperative agreement with the U.S. government. See


Internet Service Provider; an business that provides commercial access to the Internet


International Telecommunications Union. A specialized agency of the United Nations based in Geneva, Switzerland. It was established in 1865 as the International Telegraph Union and currently works on telecommunications policy with governments and private organizations. See



A popular scripting program for Internet web pages that is not discussed anywhere in this book.


killer app

The sine quo non software application program de jour.


lame delegation

A designation for a registered second level domain that remains inactivated for more than 90 days. Some registries have a lame deligation policy that outlines when such domain name assignments may be returned to the available pool.

Lanham Act

The Lanham Act, Title 15 of the United States Code (l5 U.S.C. §1051-1128), is the federal statute that defines and governs the registration and rights of four types of marks--trademarks, service marks, certification marks and collective marks.


The study of the structure and development of a language and its relationship to other languages.


A subject-specific automated e-mail system. Users subscribe to a listserv, and they they are able to comment on related topics and receive comments and responses from other list subscribers, all by e-mail. The domain policy listserv was a valuable resource to the authors of this book. See also mailing list.


Madrid Protocol

A treaty to correct objections to the Madrid Agreement of 1891. By mid 1997, it had 19 signatories. The U.S. has not ratified the agreement. See

mailing list

A subject-specific automated e-mail system that is also called a listserv. Users subscribe to it, or sign up to participate, and by e-mail they can comment on a specific topic and receive information about it from other subscribers. A mailing list may be moderated. This means that messages sent to the list are actually sent to an individual or moderator , who determines whether or not to send the messages on to everyone else.


A humorous term applied to packets that turn up unexpectedly on the wrong network because of bogus routing entries. Also used as a name for a packet which has an altogether bogus (non-registered or ill-formed) internet address. [Source: RFC1208]


A non-binding dispute resolution procedure in which a neutral intermediary, the mediator, assists the parties in reaching a mutually satisfactory, agreed settlement of the dispute. Mediation is one of the dispute resolution approaches used by the World Intellectual Propety Organization.


A top level domain name denoting an abbreviation for military. In Internet addressing protocol, . MIL indicates a site belonging to a military branch or organization.


Military Network is the production, non-classified TCP/IP network of the U.S. Department of Defense.


Any word or word part that conveys meaning and which cannot be divided into smaller elements that also can convey meaning. Morphemes usually occur with relatively stable meaning in a variety of contexts.


An early browser that, because of its ease of use, triggered the popularity of the Internet.


Memorandum of Understanding. A document of intent, used by the IAHC to outline its proposal for creating seven new top level domains to replenish the dwindling supply of addresses on the World Wide Web and end the monopoly over administration of the .COM top level domain. The gTLD-MoU received the supporting signatures of approximately 200 organizations worldwide. On November 25, 1998, the U.S. Department of Commerce entered into an MoU with ICANN that outlines their collaborative participation in transferring Internet administrative functions to the private sector. See and


Activities on a near global level involving the agreement or cooperation of a number of nations. The word is commonly used in areas of international relations such as treaties, agreements and trading systems.

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